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Next, think of two to five statements to support each main point: These are your subpoints.Together, these main points and subpoints represent about as much detail as your audience can absorb in a single oral presentation.Because he divided his presentation's body in two fairly separated parts, John reviews and concludes each separately, thus merging review and conclusion.
Written documents are for convincing with detailed evidence; oral presentations, on the other hand, are for convincing with delivery — both verbal and nonverbal.
Finally, presentations normally include interaction in the form of questions and answers.
For example, when reporting on materials and methods, include only those details you think will help convince the audience of your main message — usually little, and sometimes nothing at all.
All three speakers (John, Marie, and Jean-luc) closed their presentations with a review, a conclusion, and a close.
Even if you think of your presentation's body as a tree, you will still deliver the body as a sequence in time — unavoidably, one of your main points will come first, one will come second, and so on.
Organize your main points and subpoints into a logical sequence, and reveal this sequence and its logic to your audience with transitions between points and between subpoints.Instead of presenting everything that was done in the order in which it was done, a presentation should focus on getting a main message across in theorem-proof fashion — that is, by stating this message early and then presenting evidence to support it.Identifying this main message early in the preparation process is the key to being selective in your presentation.In its intent and structure, the opening of an oral presentation is similar to the Introduction of a scientific paper, which provides the context, need, task, and object of the document, with three main differences: Marie structured her presentation around three main points and, for each, she included either two or three subpoints.At the end of her opening, she previews her main points only (because the audience cannot assimilate more than one level at a time); then, as she starts each main point, she previews the corresponding subpoints.They are therefore harder to follow and should be much more selective in what they contain.The idea is not to say out loud everything that is already written in the proceedings paper or dissertation.As a rule, place your strongest arguments first and last, and place any weaker arguments between these stronger ones.After supporting your main message with evidence in the body, wrap up your oral presentation in three steps: a review, a conclusion, and a close.To make your body's structure easy to remember, for both you as a speaker and your audience, think of it as a tree (or hierarchy) rather than a chain.Identify two, three, four, or a maximum of five statements you can make to support your main message: These are your main points.