Phtosynthesis Projects

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This is called oxygenic photosynthesis and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms.Photosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs, which means that they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide and water using energy from light.However, not all organisms use carbon dioxide as a source of carbon atoms to carry out photosynthesis; photoheterotrophs use organic compounds, rather than carbon dioxide, as a source of carbon.Although photosynthesis is performed differently by different species, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called reaction centres that contain green chlorophyll pigments.In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane.Although there are some differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, the overall process is quite similar in these organisms.There are also many varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesis, used mostly by certain types of bacteria, which consume carbon dioxide but do not release oxygen.Some organisms employ even more radical variants of photosynthesis. Besides chlorophyll, plants also use pigments such as carotenes and xanthophylls.Some archaea use a simpler method that employs a pigment similar to those used for vision in animals. Algae also use chlorophyll, but various other pigments are present, such as phycocyanin, carotenes, and xanthophylls in green algae, phycoerythrin in red algae (rhodophytes) and fucoxanthin in brown algae and diatoms resulting in a wide variety of colors.The general equation for photosynthesis as first proposed by Cornelis van Niel is therefore: This equation emphasizes that water is both a reactant in the light-dependent reaction and a product of the light-independent reaction, but canceling n water molecules from each side gives the net equation: Photosynthesis occurs in two stages. Embedded within the stroma are stacks of thylakoids (grana), which are the site of photosynthesis. The thylakoid itself is enclosed by the thylakoid membrane, and within the enclosed volume is a lumen or thylakoid space.In the first stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH. Embedded in the thylakoid membrane are integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes of the photosynthetic system.

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