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Historically, the methods section was referred to as the materials and methods to emphasize the 2 distinct areas that must be addressed.
A study design is simply a strategy to control and manipulate variables that provide an answer to the research question regarding potential cause-and-effect Validity refers to the credibility of experimental results and the degree to which the results can be applied to the general population of interest.
Internal validity refers to the credibility of a study and is determined by the degree to which conclusions drawn from an experiment correctly describe what actually transpired during the study.
The selection criteria and rationale for enrolling patients into the study must be stated explicitly.
For example, if the study proclaims to examine whether latanoprost reduces post-phacoemulsification intraocular pressure, then one would not anticipate that patients with combined trabeculectomy and phacoemulsifcation to be included.
Judging the external validity of a study involving human subjects (ie, to whom the study results may be applied) requires that descriptive data be provided regarding the basic demographic profile of the sample population, including age, gender, and possibly the racial composition of the sample.
Methods Section Of Research Paper
When animals are the subjects of a study, it is important to list species, weight, strain, sex, and age.
Who is chosen for inclusion in a study (as well as how treatments are assigned) in large measure determines what limits are placed on the generalizations that can be made regarding the study results.
Thus, when writing the methods section, it is important to describe who the subjects were in the context of the research question.
The variable that changes in response to that manipulation is referred to as a dependent variable.
For example, intraocular pressure is a dependent variable that responds to manipulations in independent variables such as blood pressure and pupil size.