He further suggests that he has often relied on a patient's dreams in order to direct him towards the source of that patient's neurosis.
He announces his intention to address how dream theory has been developed since its inception, and uses the as a case study.
In the case of psychosis, the subject 'turns away' because the conscious mind cannot handle reality, and so allows the unconscious to redefine the world.
It is an extreme means of repressing unpleasant thoughts that the real world forces on the subject.
The patient should be encouraged to mention any feelings, memories, or seemingly unrelated thoughts that come to his mind during this process.
Focusing on the dreamer's associations (rather than upon the manifest content that evoked these associations) serves to clarify what these images mean to the dreamer, and hence why his mind selected these particular images.
The latent content, however, contains the underlying thoughts or feelings that provoked the dream in the first place.
He argues that the goal of psychoanalysis is to transform the manifest content into the latent, and to thus explain why the latent content became manifest in the dreamer’s mind.
Sometimes, the patient unknowingly withholds important associations by relaying other less important associations.
Other times, the patient may forget his dreams, misremember certain aspects, or even unconsciously refuse to relate important associations.