The condition is more common in males than in females, and among people who are in prison.
Research into genetic associations in antisocial personality disorder is suggestive that ASPD has some or even a strong genetic basis.
People with an antisocial or alcoholic parent are considered to be at higher risk.
Fire-setting and cruelty to animals during childhood are also linked to the development of antisocial personality.
lack of empathy, fearlessness) and interpersonal (e.g.
grandiosity, manipulativeness) personality disturbances. Various other gene candidates for ASPD have been identified by a genome-wide association study published in 2016.Serious problems with interpersonal relationships are often seen in those with the disorder.Attachments and emotional bonds are weak, and interpersonal relationships often revolve around the manipulation, exploitation, and abuse of others.Compared to the childhood-onset type, less impairment in various cognitive and emotional functions are present, and the adolescent-onset variety may remit by adulthood.In addition to this differentiation, the DSM-5 provides a specifier for a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, which reflects characteristics seen in psychopathy and are believed to be a childhood precursor to this disorder.Conduct disorder (CD) is a disorder diagnosed in childhood that parallels the characteristics found in ASPD and is characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated.Children with the disorder often display impulsive and aggressive behavior, may be callous and deceitful, and may repeatedly engage in petty crime such as stealing or vandalism or get into fights with other children and adults.Individuals with this personality disorder will typically have no compunction in exploiting others in harmful ways for their own gain or pleasure and frequently manipulate and deceive other people, achieving this through wit and a façade of superficial charm or through intimidation and violence.Irresponsibility is a core characteristic of this disorder: they can have significant difficulties in maintaining stable employment as well as fulfilling their social and financial obligations, and people with this disorder often lead exploitative, unlawful, or parasitic lifestyles.Two developmental courses for CD have been identified based on the age at which the symptoms become present.The first is known as the "childhood-onset type" and occurs when conduct disorder symptoms are present before the age of 10 years.