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This program, introduced in 2007 and having an annual fiscal expenditure of 30 billion RMB, aims to provide coverage to more than 200 million urban residents including elderly, children, college students and unemployed adults.I exploit the city-variation in policy generosity as an exogenous determinant of URBMI enrollment.
Using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), I find that URBMI increases welfare on several margins.
Having insurance coverage increases health care spending while decreasing the out-of-pocket payments, providing protection from the financial risk.
The estimation results reveal substantial variation in the impact of URBMI by age, income and gender.
Children, the elderly above the age of 70, and females ages 25-40 benefit the most from the program.
I first propose a two-stage semiparametric least square (SLS) method to consistently estimate the model parameters and then conduct a localized 2SLS procedure to recover the quantile treatment effect.
Identification, consistency, and root-N asymptotic normality of estimators for parameters and marginal effects are proved.My results further show that hospitals divert community benefit spending to teaching to meet the requirement of CRR, rather than increasing provision of uncompensated care.The social, economic, and political development of any country depends on the ability of its citizens to contribute toward common goals. All American citizens have the right to access quality health care.The validity and efficiency of such practice has long been under debate.Recently, many state and federal laws have been enacted that mandate the reporting of benefits provided to the community by non-profit providers. Given the preferential tax treatment for nonprofit hospitals, the tax rate, in conjunction with community benefit reporting requirement (CRR), determine the net subsidy provided to a nonprofit hospital compared to its for-profit counterpart.I exploit the variation in tax policy across states and over time to identify the effect of tax subsidy on the ownership choice of hospitals.I further differentiate behavior between nonprofit versus for-profit hospitals, including cost, provision of undercompensated care as well as quality.Adult males and individuals with incomes below the median level do not respond significantly to insurance coverage.The findings of heterogeneous insurance effects have important policy implications for the cost-effectiveness of URBMI across population groups, suggesting the need for differentiated insurance programs.For this to be attained, the population needs to be in good health to engage in productive activities. citizens who cannot afford health care from the private sector because of the high prices have their right to happiness denied. This denies them the right to life as guaranteed in the U. Quality service cannot be guaranteed under the private sector.Health care in the United States should be prioritized if the American Dream is to be realized. Constitution guarantees its citizens the right to liberty, happiness, and life. In an effort to maximize profits, players in the sector engage in cost cutting measures, including under-staffing and purchase of cheap medical supplies.