Essay On Descartes Theory Of Knowledge

Essay On Descartes Theory Of Knowledge-86
This is because, as their cause, God, is at least as great as their existence, since it is antecedent to them. If there is any value that does have value, it must lie outside the whole sphere of what happens and is the case. Though consciousness has made the mind-body problem seemingly intractable, to some philosophers, fi nite and...Hence, one can infer that Descartes believes God is more perfect than people, and because of this it follows that God’s attributes are more powerful than theirs, which, in turn, can lead one to believe that God is also freer than people. , Plotinus claims all existence derives from an entirely immaterial and benevolent source which he calls the One.[1] At the same time, he also states matter corrupts that which is immaterial, and one should not understand it as being good.[2] Therefore, how can one state that Plotinus...To Spinoza, when one mistakenly thinks they are choosing to do something good, they are in fact just following what is conducive to maintaining who they are insofar as they understand themselves at that instant.

In other words, since only a substance can be uncompelled and free, it follows that only God as the cause of itself can be attributed as being the one independent substance, while people, who are extended, as well as rational beings, governed by the laws of the mind and body, are so because they are modes of God’s attributes of thought and extension.

Consequently, by being modes of God’s attributes of thought and extension, people are limited expressions of God because only God possesses infinitely many attributes, whereas people possess none, and thus what they conceive to be their free-will is only an infinitesimal way of conveying God’s will.

Furthermore, Spinoza states people can overcome the influence that outside affects have over them by exercising reason.

This he claims is possible by knowing the nature of affects, remembering that the knowledge of affects are better known than not, understanding that affects can assist one in ethical life, and that the mind has the power to order affects according to their importance, or degree of power they have over the mind.

With this essay, I will first explain Spinoza’s and Descartes’s notions regarding freedom of the will, its existence, and its scope.

I will then describe the differences in their philosophical positions, and argue in favor of Spinoza’s view on this matter.Finally, people, by having the power to put affects in order, based on their intensity, which derives from one’s natural ability to order ideas, since they are part of the causal chain following from God’s existence, can truly deny the influence of certain affects, especially those that could be called evil, or, to Spinoza, ones that dampen the progress of one’s ability to think. It is of my opinion that one of these philosophers, Spinoza, in the first book of his "The sense of the world must lie outside the world.Though Descartes believes that thinking things, such as people, are free in nature, he claims that they must not understand their capacity to be free as being at an equal level to this substance’s, or God’s freedom. In the world, everything is as it is, and everything happens as it does happen: in it no value does exist-and if it did exist it would have no value. In recent decades, though, the philosophy of mind has revealed consciousness to be, in the words of Thomas Nagel, "what makes the mindbody problem intractable" (Nagel, 1979).This is because people can only conceive God in two ways and hence, their ability to express God’s attribute of freedom is limited by the mental, as well as, physical laws which causes one’s understanding of God to only be so through thought and extension.Finally, one can understand this as a result of the limits of human nature, and because one cannot adequately conceive all of God’s attributes, he/she is neither unlimitedly free, nor at the same level of freedom as is God.Furthermore, though he claims freedom of the will is illusory, it can be the case that an increase in one’s knowledge of causes can help one to override, or to restrain the power affects have over them.In other words, through the cultivation of reason one can come to have a certain amount of authority over their lives insofar as they are people, and not the one uncompelled substance, or God. Google(); req('single_work'); $('.js-splash-single-step-signup-download-button').one('click', function(e){ req_and_ready('single_work', function() ); new c. Within the works of Spinoza, as well as those of Descartes, issues concerning the nature of free-will come to the fore.This is because, by having knowledge of the nature of affects one can better recognize them as either being conducive or detrimental to their self-preservation.Also, the knowledge of affects are better known than not, since one can use their understanding of affects to form clear and distinct ideas, which can further accustom him/her to apply their reason, and in the process, develop a stronger mind that can recognize its inherent ability to know the truth of things, or that which agrees with one’s nature, insofar as they understand themselves at that time.

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