Consonant Epenthesis

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As for a diachronic (historical) analysis, since epenthetic consonants are not used regularly in modern Japanese, it is possible that this epenthetic , "unfolding" in Greek, anaptyctic), is also known by the Sanskrit term svarabhakti.

Some accounts distinguish between "intrusive vowels", vowel-like releases of consonants as phonetic detail, and true epenthetic vowels, which are required by the phonotactics of the language and acoustically identical with phonemic vowels.

An example in an English song is "The Umbrella Man", where the meter requires that "umbrella" be pronounced with four syllables, um-buh-rel-la, so that "any umbrellas" has the meter ány úmberéllas. Epenthesis often breaks up a consonant cluster or vowel sequence not permitted by the phonotactics of a language.

Sporadic cases can be less obviously motivated, however, such as warsh 'wash' with an extra r in some varieties of American English, Hamtramck is pronounced 'Hamtramick' as if there were an extra i.

Other examples exist in Modern Persian in which former word-initial consonant clusters (which were still extant in Middle Persian) are regularly broken up: Middle Persian brādar Modern Persian (Iran) sotūn "column"; modern borrowings are also affected.

In the Western Romance languages, a prothetic vowel was inserted at the beginning of any word that began with /s/ and another consonant: Latin spatha "sword" modern épée.The three short syllables in reliquiās do not fit into dactylic hexameter because of the dactyl's limit of two short syllables, so the first syllable is lengthened by adding another l.However, this pronunciation was often not written with double ll, and may have been the normal way of pronouncing a word starting in rel- rather than a poetic modification.For example, while the comparative form of the adjective zoet ("sweet") is zoeter, the comparative of zuur ("sour") is zuurder and not *zurer as would be expected.Similarly, the agent noun of verkopen ("to sell") is verkoper ("salesperson"), but the agent noun of uitvoeren ("to perform") is uitvoerder ("performer").The Dutch city of Delft is pronounced /DEL-lift/ by its inhabitants.Georgian often breaks up its consonant clusters with schwas.In Old English, this was ane in all positions, so a diachronic analysis would see the original n disappearing except where a following vowel required its retention: an an.In Dutch, whenever the suffix -er (which has several meanings) is attached to a word already ending in -r, an additional -d- is inserted in between.However it is correct to call this epenthesis when viewed synchronically, since the modern basic form of the verb is a, and the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form.A similar example is the English indefinite article a, which becomes an before a vowel.

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