Communalism in India is result of the emergence of modern politics, which has its roots in partition of Bengal in 1905 and feature of separate electorate under Government of India Act, 1909.Later, British government also appeased various communities through Communal award in 1932, which faced strong resistance from Gandhi ji and others.
People lived peacefully together, there was acceptance for each other’s culture and tradition.
For example, Ashoka followed religious tolerance and focussed mainly on Dhamma.
In Medieval period, we have examples such as- Akbar, who was epitome of secular practises and believed in propagating such values by abolishing Jajhiya tax and starting of Din-I- ilahi and Ibadat Khana.
Same acceptance for different cultures and tradition was practised in several kingdoms throughout India, because of which there was peace and harmony, barring few sectarian rulers like Aurangzeb, who was least tolerant for other religious practises.
were instrumental in deepening and establishing the feeling of communal differences in India.
But, these incidents were not common as, huge majority of Indians were rural and were aloof from such influences and so people coexisted peacefully.So, these people started demanding communal representation and this way, social base for communalism widened.Middle class oscillated between anti-imperialism and communalism.Though, they were very rigid in practising their own rituals and practise, but it never became barrier in the peaceful coexistence.Overall, the Hindus and Muslims in those days, had common economic and political interests.And it is known for lingual, ethnic, cultural and racial diversity.As, we have discussed above, communalism in India is a modern phenomenon, which has become threat to India’s Later on, spread of education to peasant and small landlords gave rise to new middle class, as agriculture was becoming stagnant.It is characterized as, People from different ethnic groups or community, who do not interact much or at all and this has somewhere acted as hindrance in the economic growth and prosperity of Africa.Communalism in South Asia is used to denote the differences between the various religious groups and difference among the people of different community.(by Communal award colonial government mandated that consensus over any issue among different communities (i.e.Hindu, Muslims, Sikhs and others) is precondition for any further political development) India is a land of diversity.